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Exercise - What the Research Says

Posted: Mon, April 15, 2013 | By: Exercise



by Davison Westmoreland

The benefits of physical activity were first scientifically noted in 1953 by Dr. Jerry Morris. Dr. Morris discovered that men of similar social status had different rates of cardiovascular disease based on how much physical activity their occupation required (Morris & Glasg 1953). Since then, studies have documented many more health benefits gained from physical activity and have begun to research the volume, duration and intensity need to realize these benefits.

this report originally appeared in Davison Westmoreland’s blog, HERE

Benefits of Exercise: Physical activity has been shown to have a number of physiological and psychological benefits. Some benefits of physical activity include:

  • Cardiovascular Disease: Physical activity has been shown to reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease by 35% (Macera & Hootman 2003).
  • Cancer: There is strong evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of colon, breast, and endometrial cancers. There is weaker evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of ovarian, lung, and prostate cancers. There is either no or insufficient evidence for all other cancers (Friedenreich & Neilson 2010). To be specific, research has shown that physical activity can reduce the risk of colon cancer in men by 30% to 40%, and breast cancer in women by 20% to 30% (Lee 2003).
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  • Stroke: Highly active individuals have a 25% lower risk of stroke incidence or mortality than less active individuals (Lee & Folsom 2003).
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  • Type 2 Diabetes: Moderate physical activity was found to reduce the risk of diabetes in men by 40% (Jefferis & Whincup 2012). Additionally, those individuals with diabetes who walked for at least 120 minutes a week, had a 39% to 54% reduced risk of mortality (Gregg & Gerzoff 2003).
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  • Obesity: Physical activity has been shown to prevent weight gain, promote weight loss, and maintain weight loss (Donnelly & Blair 2009).
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  • Osteoporosis: Physical activity helps prevent osteoporosis (Nguyen & Center 2000).
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  • Depression: Physical activity has been shown to reduce the risk of becoming depressed (Teychenne & Ball 2008). Physical activity has also been shown to reduce the symptoms of depression (Dunn & Trivedi 2001).
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  • Alzheimer’s disease & Dementia: Physical activity has been shown to prevent or delay the onset of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia (Rockwood & Middleton 2007).
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  • Cognitive function: Physical activity has been shown to improve cognitive function in children (Ellemberg & St-Louis-Deschenes 2010) and adults (Kramer & Erickson 2007).
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  • Stress: Physical activity has been shown to reduce stress (Smits & Tart 2011).
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  • Mood: Physical activity has been shown to improve mood (Reed & Buck 2009).
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  • Self-Esteem: Physical activity has also been shown to increase self esteem (McAuley & Blissmer 2000).

Volume: Volume is the total amount of physical activity accumulated over a period of time, usually a week. Research has shown that volume is more important for health benefits than exercise duration or intensity (U.S. Dep. 2008).

  • 0-150 minutes a week: Any amount of physical activity is beneficial. In fact, the incremental gains from the first 150 minutes of aerobic exercise a week are the largest (see chart) (U.S. Dep. 2008).
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  • 150-300 minutes a week: Adults are recommended to get at least 150 minutes per week (30 minutes a day, 5 days a week) of moderate intensity aerobic exercise or at least 75 minutes of vigorous intensity aerobic exercise, or an equivalent combination of the two (O’Donovan & Blazevich 2010). Substantial health benefits accrue to individuals meeting this target (all of those listed in the first section except colon cancer, breast cancer, and substantial weight loss).
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  • 300+ minutes a week: Adults who get at least 300 minutes of aerobic exercise a week gain the health benefits of those who exercise 150 minutes a week, but to a greater degree (see chart). Individuals who exercise 300 minutes a week also gain protection from colon and breast cancer as well as an increased likelihood of weight loss (U.S. Dept 2008).
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  • Strength training: Strength training offers the independent benefits of muscular strength, endurance, and mass. It assists in the maintenance of basal metabolic rate and lean body mass (to aid weight loss). Strength training also promotes independence and helps prevent falls in the elderly (Pollock & Franklin 2000). Strength training for at least 30 minutes on 2-3 non-consecutive days a week is recommended. Research supports doing 8-12 repetitions of 8-10 different exercises targeting all major muscle groups. (O’Donovan & Blazevich 2010)
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Duration: Duration is the length of continuous time an individual spends exercising during an average session. Duration has little effect on the health benefits of exercise.

  • Bouts of less than 10 minutes: There has been little research studying bouts of less than 10 minutes, although some studies have shown that these short bouts of exercise are just as effective as bouts of 10 minutes or longer (Strath & Holleman 2008).
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  • 10 minute bouts: Exercising in 10 minute bouts has been shown to be as effective as exercising in longer continuous bouts (Murphy & Blair 2010).
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  • Spread out to at least 3 days a week: Individuals who exercised in longer bouts on 1-2 days a week had a lower mortality risk relative to inactive individuals. However, the overall mortality risk was lowest for individuals who spread their exercise out over at least 3 days a week (Lee & Sesso 2004).
  • Intensity: The intensity of an activity is measured by its Metabolic Equivalent (MET). The MET of an activity is measured by the rate of energy expended during that activity relative to the rate of energy expended while at rest. Low intensity activities (standing, walking slowly, and doing most household chores) have an MET between 1.1 and 2.9. Moderate intensity activities (walking fast, doubles tennis, and biking slowly) have an MET between 3.0 and 5.9. Vigorous activities (jogging, swimming, singles tennis and biking fast) have an MET of 6.0 or higher. As a rule of thumb, people engaged in moderately intense physical activities can talk, but not sing. People engaged in vigorous physical activities cannot say more than a few words without taking a breath (U.S. Dep. 2008).

    • Low: Prolonged time spend sitting has been associated with increased mortality risks, independent of exercise levels (Patel & Bernstein 2010). Taking short low-intensity activity breaks from sitting has been show to counteract many of these negative outcomes (Healy & Dunstan 2008). Additionally, low intensity exercise has been found to produce the most positive effects on mood (Reed & Buck 2009).
    • Moderate: All of the health benefits listed in the first section can be attained through moderate intensity exercise. As a general rule, an individual needs 2 minutes of moderate intensity exercise to gain the same health benefits of 1 minute of vigorous intensity exercise (O’Donovan & Blazevich 2010).
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    • Vigorous: Vigorous activity has been shown to improving aerobic fitness better than moderate intensity activity as measured by VO2max (Swain 2007). Vigorous activity also appears to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (Swain & Franklin 2006), body fat (Tremblay & Despres 1990) and all-cause mortality (Wen & Wai 2011) to a greater degree than moderate activity, after controlling for total energy expended.

     

    Additional Points:

    • Children aged 5-16: Children have been found to need more exercise than the average adult. Children are recommended to get at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic exercise a day (U.S. Dep. 2008).
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    • Individuals 65 and older & disabled: Individuals aged 65 and older as well as those who are disabled are recommended to meet the guidelines for adults aged 18-65 if possible. If not possible, these individuals are recommended to get as much exercise as their health will allow (U.S. Dep. 2008).
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    • Can you exercise too much? It is possible to exercise too much. Overtraining can cause various types of injury. In extreme cases, too much exercise can cause sudden cardiac arrest, especially in those with coronary artery disease and those who are habitually inactive (Haskell 2007). Continuous moderate to high intensity exercise of over 1.5 hours has been shown to temporarily depress the immune system for 3-24 hours (Gleeson 2007). Overtraining has also been shown to cause fatigue, performance decline and mood disturbance (Meeusen & Duclos 2006). There is a point where these risks overtake the incremental benefits of added exercise. While it appears to be above 420 minutes a week, where exactly that point is has not yet been determined.
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    Citations:

    Dunn, Andrea L.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; O’Neal, Heather A. Physical activity dose–response effects on outcomes of depression and anxiety. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, Vol 33(6, Suppl), Jun 2001, S587-S597.

    Donnelly, JE; Blair, SN; Jakicic, JM; Manore, MM; Rankin, JW; Smith, BK. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. Appropriate Activity Intervention Strategies for Weight Loss and Prevention of Weight Regain for Adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. Vol 41(2), 2009, 459-471.

    Ellemberg, Dave; St-Louis-Deschenes, Mathilde. The Effect of Acute Physical Exercise on Cognitive Function During Development. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. Vol 11(2), Mar 2010, 122-126.

    Friedenreich, CM; Neilson, HK; Lynch, BM. State of the Epidemiological Evidence on Physical Activity and Cancer Prevention. European Journal of Cancer. Vol 46(14), Sept 2010, 2593-2604.

    Gleeson, Michael. Immune Function in Sport and Exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. Vol 103(2), Aug 2007, 693-699.

    Gregg, Edward W.; Gerzoff, Robert B.; Caspersen, Carl J.; Williamson, David F.; Narayan, K. M. Venkat. Relationship of Walking to Mortality Among US Adults with Diabetes. Archives of Internal Medicine. Vol 163(12), Jun 2003, 1440-1447.

    Haskell, William L.; Lee, I-Min; Pate, Russell R.; Powell, Kenneth H.; Blair, Steven N.; Franklin, Barry A.; Macera, Caroline A.; Heath, Gregory W.; Thompson, Paul D.; Bauman, Adrian. Physical Activity and Public Health: Updated Recommendation for Adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation. Vol 116, 1081-1093.

    Healy, Genevieve N.; Dunstan, David W.; Salmon, Jo; Cerin, Ester; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Zimmet, Paul Z.; Owen, Neville. Breaks in Sedentary Time: Beneficial Associations with Metabolic Risk. Diabetes Care. Vol 21(4), Feb 2008, 661-666.

    Hu, Gang; Tuomilelto, Jaakko; Silventonen, Karri; Barengo, Noel; Jousilahti, Pekka. Joint Effects of Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Waist-to-Hip Ratio with the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Among Middle-Aged Finnish Men and Women. European Heart Journal. Vol 25(24), 2004, 2212-2219.

    Jefferis, Barbara J.; Whincup, Peter H.; Lennon, Lucy; Wannamethee, S. Goya. Longitudinal Associations Between Changes in Physical Activity and Onset of Type 2 Diabetes in Older British Men: The Influence of Adiposity. Diabetes Care. Vol 35(9) Sept 2012, 1876-1883.

    Kramer, Arthur F.; Erickson, Kirk I. Capitalizing on Cortical Plasticity: Influence of Physical Activity on Cognition and Brain Function. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. Vol 11(8), Aug 2007, 342-348.

    Lee, Chong D.; Folson, Aaron R.; Blair, Steven N. Physical Activity and Stroke Risk: A Meta-Analysis. Stroke. Vol 34, Sept 2003, 2475-2481.

    Lee, I-Min; Paffenbarger, Ralph S. Associations of Light, Moderate, and Vigorous Intensity Physical Activity with Longevity: The Harvard Alumni Health Study. American Journal  of Epidemiology. Vol 151(3), Feb 2000, 293-299.

    Lee, I-Min; Sesso, Howard D.; Oguma, Yuko; Paffenbarger, Ralph S. The “Weekend Warrior” and Risk of Mortality. American Journal of Epidemiology. Vol 160(7), 2004, 636-641.

    Lee, I-Min. Physical Activity and Cancer Prevention-Data from Epidemiologic Studies. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. Vol 35, 2003, 1823-1827.

    Macera, Caroline A.; Hootman, Jennifer M.; Sniezek, Joseph E. Major Public Health Benefits of Physical Activity. Arthritis Care & Research. Vol 49(1) Feb 2003, 122-128.

    Morris, JN; Glasg, MA; Heady, JA; Raffle, PAB; Roberts, CG; Parks, JW. Coronary Heart-Disease and Physical Activity of Work. The Lancet. Vol 2(6795), Nov 1953, 1053-1057.

    Murphy, Marie H.; Blair, Steven N.; Murtagh, Elaine M. Accumulated versus Continuous Exercise for Health Benefit: A Review of Empirical Studies. Sports Medicine. Vol 39(1), 2009, 29-43.

    Nguyen, TV; Center, JR; Eisman, JA. Osteoporosis in Elderly Men and Women: Effects of Dietary Calcium, Pysical Activity and Body Mass Index. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. Vol 15(2), Feb 2000, 322-331.

    O’Donovan, Gary; Blazevich, Anthony J.; Boreham, Colin; Cooper, Ashley R.; Crank, Helen; Ekelund, Ulf; Fox, Kenneth R.; Gately, Paul; Giles-Corti, Billie; Fill, Jason M. R.; Hamer, Mark; McDermott, Ian; Murphy, Marie; Mutrie, Nanette; Reilly, John J.; Saxton, John M. Stamatakis, Emmanuel. The ABC of Physical Activity for Health: A Consensus Statement from the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences. Journal of Sports Sciences. Vol 28(6), Apr 2010, 573-591.

    Pollock, Michael L.; Franklin, Barry A.; Balady, Gary J.; Chaitman, Bernard L.; Fleg, Jerome L.; Fletcher, Barbara; Limacher, Marian; Pina, Ileana L; Stein, Richard A.; Williams, Mark; Bazzarre, Terry. Resistance Exercise in Individuals With and Without Cardiovascular Disease: Benefits, Rationale, Safety and Prescription. Circulation. Vol 101, 2000, 828-833

    Raglin, JS; Wilson, M. State anxiety following 20 minutes of bicycle ergometer exercise at selected intensities. International Journal of Sports Medicine. Vol 17(6), 1997, 467-471.

    Reed, Justy; Buck, Sarah. The Effect of Regular Aerobic Exercise on Positive-Activated Affect: A Meta-Analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. Vol 10(6), Nov 2009, 581-594.

    Smits, Sasper A.J.; Tart, Candyce D.; Rosenfield, David; Zvolensky, Michael J. The Interplay Between Physical Activity and Anxiety Sensitivity in Fearful Responding to Carbon Dioxide Challenge. Psychosomatic Medicine. Vol 73(6), Jul 2011, 498-503.

    Strath, Scott J.; Holleman, Robert G.; Richardson, Caroline R.; Ronis, David L.; Swartz, Ann M. Objective Physical Activity Accumulation in Bouts and Non bouts and Relation to Markers of Obesity in US Adults. Preventing Chronic Disease. Vol 5(4), Oct 2008, 1-11.

    Swain, David P. Moderate of Vigorous Intensity Exercise: Which is Better for Improving Aerobic Fitness? Preventative Cardiology. Vol 8(1), 2005, 55-58.

    Teychenne, Megan; Ball, Kylie; Salmon, Jo. Physical Activity and Likelihood of Depression in Adults: A Review. Preventative Medicine. Vol 46(5) May 2008, 397-411.

    Tremblay, A.; Despres, J.P.; Leblanc, C.; Craig, C.L.; Ferris, B.; Stephens, T.; Bouchard, C. Effect of Intensity of Physical Activity on Body Fatness and Fat Distribution. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol 51(2), Feb 1990, 152-157.

    U.S. Dep. Health Hum. Serv. 2008. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008. ODPHP Publ. No. U0036. http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/pdf/paguide.pdf

    Veerman, Lennert J.; Healy, Genevieve N.; Cobiac, Linda J.; Vos, Theo; Winkler, Elisabeth; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W. Television Viewing Time and Reduced Life Expectancy: A Life Table Analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine. Vol 46, 2012, 927-930.

    Wen, Chi P.; Wai, Jackson P.M.; Tsai, Min K.; Yang, Yi C.; Cheng, Ting, Y.D.; Lee, Meng-Chih; Chan, Hui T.; Tsao, Chwen K.; Tsai, Shan P.; Wu, Xifeng. Minimum Amount of Physical Activity for Reduced Mortality and Extended Life Expectancy: A Prospective Cohort Study. The Lancet. Vol 378(9798), Oct 2011, 1244-1253.

    Williams, Paul T. Physical Fitness and Activity as Separate Heart Disease Risk Factors: A Meta-Analysis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. Vol 33(5), May 2001, 754-761.

    Similar article —> Longevity: What the Research Says

    this report originally appeared in Davison Westmoreland’s blog, HERE

    Davison Westmoreland is founder/director of socraticnews.com. He attended University of Virginia, and he now lives in the Washington D.C. area. Contact: davison.westmoreland@socraticnews.com






    Comments:

    Good summary. There are a few things that could be added. I hope others will add them on this thread as well.

    1. Bone density - strength exercises, especially clean and jerks, and deadlifts, increase bone density. Since we lose 1-2% of the bone mass from 30, this reduces the chance that we will break a bone when we fall. Until recently, if a senior fell and broke his or her hip, the odds were 33% of death within a year and 50% of death within 18 months.

    2. Neurogenesis - Running 45 minutes at 75% max. heart rate engenders neurogenesis, the creation of neural embryonic stem cells, which can become a long-term addition to brain mass if one learns something new within three weeks.

    By Alex Lightman on Apr 15, 2013 at 10:05am

    As someone who runs at least 8 miles daily,I am not shocked at your findings.

    By Tom Mooney on Apr 16, 2013 at 10:52am


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